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Fully Refined Paraffin Waxes
By Unknown
Fully Refined Paraffin Waxes By IGI

Low Melt Point Waxes

Product Code Melt Point (F) Melt Point (C)
IGI 1070A 129 53.9
IGI 1230A 130 54.4
IGI 1236A 132 55.6
IGI 1325A 130 54.4
Mid Melt Point Waxes

Product Code Melt Point (F) Melt Point (C)
IGI 1239A 138 58.9
IGI 1240A 136 57.8
IGI 1242A 139 59.4
IGI 1245A 140 60
IGI 1250A 142.5 61.4
IGI 1302A (AW4212) 140 60
IGI 1343A 138 58.9
High Melt Point Waxes

Product Code Melt Point (F) Melt Point (C)
IGI 1303A (AW5512) 154 67.8
IGI 1380A 153 67.2
IGI 1260A 157 69.4

Microcrystalline Wax
IGI MicrosereTM waxes are synonymous with the high performance and consistency. Through custom manufacturing capabilities, our goal is to help you achieve the quality, differentiated products required to meet your customer needs.
Unrivalled range of melting point, hardness & color grades to meet specific end-product needs
Conformance to FDA requirements as outlined in 21 CFR 172.886 & 178.3710
For markets restricting use of BHT, most grades available without the addition of antioxidant
IGI Microcrystalline wax is supplied as granule, pellet, slabs or liquid bulk, all designed to fit your processing needs

Melt Point
C/F Hardness
@ 25C Viscosity
@ 100C Color
D1500/D156 Packaged Forms
MICROSERE 5788A 60/140 40 dmm 19 mm/sec L0.5/- - Slab
MICROSERE 5701A 70/160 28 dmm 14 mm/sec L0.5/- - Slab
MICROSERE 5714A 70/160 28 dmm 14 mm/sec L1.5/- - Slab
MICROSERE 5715A 77/170 28 dmm 16 mm/sec - -/+16 Slab
MICROSERE 5799A 77/170 28 dmm 16 mm/sec L1.5/- - Slab
MICROSERE 5818A 83/181 18 dmm 16 mm/sec L3.5/- - Slab & Pellet
MICROSERE 5871A 83/181 18 dmm 16 mm/sec L0.5/- - Slab & Pellet
MICROSERE 5890A 83/181 18 dmm 16 mm/sec - -/+16 Slab & Pellet
MICROSERE 5981A 84/183 14 dmm 14 mm/sec L0.5/- - Slab, Pellet & Granule
MICROSERE 5897A 87/188 18 dmm 20 mm/sec L0.5/- - Slab, Pellet & Granule
MICROSERE 5896A 87/188 18 dmm 20 mm/sec - -/+16 Slab, Pellet & Granule
MICROSERE 5901A 89/192 9 dmm 15 mm/sec L0.5/- - Slab, Pellet & Granule
MICROSERE 5999A 90/194 8 dmm 20 mm/sec L1.5/- - Slab, Pellet & Granule
MICROSERE 5909A 90/194 8 dmm 20 mm/sec L0.5/- - Slab, Pellet & Granule
MICROSERE 5910A 90/194 8 dmm 20 mm/sec - -/+16 Slab, Pellet & Granule

Soy and Palm Waxes
IGI recognizes the unique advantages of combining paraffin and soy waxes. The synergies created combining these types of product is evident in IGIs candle product lineup. Please review our candle wax section for more information.

In addition to these blends, IGI offers a line of palm-based waxes which offer a unique look in finish compared to typical candles. Below is a brief description of each product.

IGI Palm Wax Physical Properties
(IGI R2322A)
For Container/Jar
R2322A TIS Congeal Pt (ASTM D938) 139F(59.4C) typical
Needle Pen (ASTM D1321) @ 77F(25C) 13 dmm typ
(IGI R2778A)
For Pillar & Votive
R2778A TIS Congeal Pt (ASTM D938) 129F(53.9C) typical
Needle Pen (ASTM D1321) @ 77F(25C) 11 dmm typ
(IGI R2779A)
For Pillar & Votive
R2779A TIS Congeal Pt (ASTM D938) 135F(57.2C) typical
Needle Pen (ASTM D1321) @ 77F(25C) 9 dmm typ

Candle Waxes by IGI
When it comes to creating an enriched experience, candles are unsurpassed in offering visual beauty, fragrance and mood. They lend opulence and appeal that are accessible to anyone. Candles can be festive and celebratory or rejuvenating and soothing. Plus theyre so versatile; they offer everything from an affordable design statement to a spa-like aromatherapy encounter.
The IGI candle waxes include a full line of innovative paraffin wax, vegetable wax, and hybrid wax formulations for jar filled and pillar/votive candles each tailored for the varying needs of a diverse customer base. As a leader in formulated waxes for the candle industry, we invite you to experience the advantages IGI blends will offer your candle business.
All PARAFFLEX waxes in the EZ Pour and EZ Form line are designed to be used without the addition of additives (except for UV stabilizers, if necessary). Note that IGI offers several additional custom wax blends for candle customers. Please contact us for additional products or questions regarding specific applications.
Selection of Products for your candle application: review the selection of products to see if will suit your desired candle type. Please also review the selection of links to the side of this page. These will reference you to production selection matrices (in a convenient, one page Adobe PDF download), guideline sheets, and technical papers based of IGIs expertise in the candle industry.
TIS (Technical Information) sheets will give you the product specification range for each product. PIS (Product Information Sheets) will give more specific guidelines.


Recommended Links for Candle Customers

EZ Pour product selection guide for container candles



EZ Form product selection guide for pillar, votive, and molded candles

General guidelines for Candlemaking

THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC.
85 Old Eagle School Road P.O. Box 384 Wayne, PA 19087 (610) 687-9030 Fax (610) 254-8548
50 Salome Drive Agincourt, Ontario, Canada M1S 2A8 (416) 293-4151 Fax (416) 293-0344
WARRANTY DISCLAIMER STATEMENT
The information contained in this bulletin is based on tests which are believed to be reliable. As actual conditions of use may vary and are beyond the control of
THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC. the products specified characteristics cannot be guaranteed and are offered solely for the buyers evaluation and
verification. There are no warranties, representations or conditions, expressed or implied, of any kind, including, but limited to, merchantability or fitness for a
particular purpose made by THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC. or its officers, employees or affiliates, in connection with the sale of the products described in
this bulletin. Accordingly, the purchaser and each user assumes all risks and liability in connection with their use of such products. Nothing contained herein is to
be construed as permission, recommendation or inducement by THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC. or its officers, employees or affiliates, to use any product or
process so as to infringe or conflict with any patent. Further, it is the users obligation to utilize this material in full compliance with health, safety and
environmental regulations. THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC. recommends that the Material Safety Data Sheet for this product be consulted prior to handling.
General Guidelines for Container Candles
Suggestions for Container Selection.
Container choice: This is probably one of the most critical things to choose correctly for any
container candle to get good results. The container shape affects the cooling rate of the wax, for
optimal results the cooling rate should be as uniform as possible:
− Containers with uniform wall thickness help to maintain a uniform cooling rate of the candles;
− Containers with uniform wall thickness will be easier to pre-warm;
− Containers with smooth rounded corners will work better than ones with sharp corners;
− Containers with bottoms comparable in thickness to the walls will promote uniform cooling
rate of the candles, and will be easier to heat;
− Containers with thinner walls will pre-warm faster than ones with thicker walls or bottoms;
− Containers with uniform volumes along its height will work better than ones that have varying
volumes along its height (e.g. a straight up-and-down glass container will work better than
one with a bulge in the middle);
− Containers with smooth inside surfaces will work better than ones with uneven surfaces.
− Generally round containers will give better results than square, oval, or angular ones.
− For optimal single pour characteristics, containers with a diameter equal to or larger than the
height are required. In containers with a diameter smaller than the height of the container, the
blend may require a top-up pour.
Suggestions for optimizing production and storage conditions:
Evaluate containers by pouring candles within the specified parameters, using the desired
fragrance and dye combinations.
If the required equipment is available, temperature cycling can be done, as follows:
Age half of the candles at room temperature and temperature cycle the other half of the candles as
follows:
− Place the candles in a fridge (we recommend 40F/4C) for 24 hours.
− Remove from fridge and place in an oven or other suitable hot place (temperature preferably
above 95F/35C, up to 104F/40C).
− Repeat this cycle for at least 2 weeks, preferably 3 weeks.
The temperature cycled candles should give a good indication of how the candles will behave for
each fragrance/dye combination under various storage and transport conditions.
Troubleshooting Guide:
Pull-away of candle from container walls:
− Check container temperatures before pouring;
− Check pour temperature
− Check container design against guidelines above
− Check candle cooling area for drafts which could result in non-uniform cooling.
Excessive shrinkage: (For one-pour applications)
− Note that a small amount of shrinkage is normal, and that this will be more noticeable on
large volume candles. The shrinkage is usually less noticeable once a wick is present.
− Check pour temperature
Some fragrance/dye combinations work well, while others dont:
THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC.
85 Old Eagle School Road P.O. Box 384 Wayne, PA 19087 (610) 687-9030 Fax (610) 254-8548
50 Salome Drive Agincourt, Ontario, Canada M1S 2A8 (416) 293-4151 Fax (416) 293-0344
WARRANTY DISCLAIMER STATEMENT
The information contained in this bulletin is based on tests which are believed to be reliable. As actual conditions of use may vary and are beyond the control of
THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC. the products specified characteristics cannot be guaranteed and are offered solely for the buyers evaluation and
verification. There are no warranties, representations or conditions, expressed or implied, of any kind, including, but limited to, merchantability or fitness for a
particular purpose made by THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC. or its officers, employees or affiliates, in connection with the sale of the products described in
this bulletin. Accordingly, the purchaser and each user assumes all risks and liability in connection with their use of such products. Nothing contained herein is to
be construed as permission, recommendation or inducement by THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC. or its officers, employees or affiliates, to use any product or
process so as to infringe or conflict with any patent. Further, it is the users obligation to utilize this material in full compliance with health, safety and
environmental regulations. THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC. recommends that the Material Safety Data Sheet for this product be consulted prior to handling.
Although extensive testing with different fragrance/dye combinations have been done, it has obviously not
been possible to test all fragrance/dye combinations. If consistent problems are seen with a particular
combination, it is recommended to try a dye or fragrance from an alternative supplier
Blistering and Pitting
− Check jar temperature prior to pouring
− Check pour temperature
− Experiments with cycling have shown that temperature fluctuations can lead to blistering and
pitting. Check for possible temperature fluctuations during storage and transportation.
Mottling Troubleshooting/Notes
Mottling incomplete or not sufficient (for IGI mottling blends)
− Note that mottling may take several hours (up to 24) to develop fully.
− Check production temperatures
o Check jar temperature
o Check pour temperature
o Check cooling temperature. Mottling can be improved by cooling candles as slowly as
possible, to give the crystallization time to occur.
− Oil level may be too low - increase oil level
Shrinkage:
− Note that shrinkage is normal, as this is a multiple pour container wax. However, studies have
found that good mottling is usually accompanied by less severe shrinkage than non-mottling
waxes. Shrinkage will be more noticeable on large volume candles.
Some fragrance/dye combinations work well, while others dont:
− been done, it has obviously not been possible to test all fragrance/dye combinations. If
consistent problems are seen with a particular combination, it is recommended to try a dye or
fragrance from an alternative supplier.
Bleeding:
− Note that mottling is often accompanied by bleeding. The mottling phenomenon is thought to
include the displacement of liquid by air following a phase transition in which the wax
recrystallizes, and waxes that mottle well usually exhibit bleeding too.
− The additives that alleviate bleeding in other candle types also decreases or even completely
eliminates mottling
− Optimizing production conditions could help minimizing bleeding (pour temperature, cooling
temperature).
− Fragrance will affect the degree of mottling.
− Temperature cycling tends to increase the amount of bleeding candles should preferably be
stored and transported at constant temperatures.
− Allow 24 hours for the excess oil on the surface to evaporate before placing lids on containers
should help to get rid of surface greasiness.
− If 1286 exhibits too much bleeding after optimizing all parameters listed above, IGI 1288A
could be tested this has a lower oil content than 1286 (1.5% typical instead of 2.3%).
Mottle disappears: Check storage temperature. Check transportation temperature. Note that if the
mottled candles are heated (e.g. stands in sunshine, near a heater or UV light) the part of the
candle exposed to the heat may lose its mottle.

Mottling Technical Paper

Syneresis (fragrance bleed) Technical Paper

Palm Wax formulation guidelines

National Candle Association (NCA)

Some Esoteric Facts:
- More than 1 billion pounds of wax are used in producing the candles sold each year in the U.S.
- There are more than 400 commercial, religious and institutional manufacturers of candles in the United States, in addition to scores of small craft producers for local, non-commercial use.
- The majority of U.S. consumers use their candles within a week of purchase.
- Nine out of ten candle users say they use candles to make a room feel comfortable or cozy.
- Candle purchasers say they view candles as an appropriate gift for the holidays (76%), as a house warming gift (74%), a hostess/dinner party gift (66%), a thank you (61%) and as adult birthday gifts (58%).
- Two-thirds of candle purchasers say they use candles once a week or more often.
- Manufacturer surveys show that more than 95% of all candles are purchased by women.
- Votives, container candles and pillars are currently the most popular types of candles with American consumers.
- Candle industry research indicates that the most important factors affecting candle sales are scent, color, cost and shape.
- The retail price of a candle generally ranges from approximately 50 for a votive to $75 for a large pillar candle.
- Highly unusual or embellished artisan candles can be $200 or more.
- U.S. retail sales of candles are estimated at approximately $2 billion annually, excluding sales of candle accessories.
- Candles are used in 7 out of 10 U.S. households.
- Candles generally can be categorized into 11 basic types: tapers, votives, pillars, container(or jar) candles, tealights, liturgical candles, outdoor candles, floating candles, novelty candles, utility candles, and birthday candles.

FAQ's
What causes a candle to smoke, and what can I do to correct it?
A well-made candle will create virtually no smoke when burning properly. However, if the wick becomes too long, or an air current disturbs the flame's teardrop shape, small amounts of unburned carbon particles (soot) will escape from the flame as a visible wisp of smoke. Any candle will soot if the flame is disturbed.

To avoid this, always trim the wick to inch before every use and be sure to place candles away from drafts, vents or air currents. If a candle continually flickers or smokes, it is not burning properly and should be extinguished. Allow the candle to cool, trim the wick, make sure the area is draft free, then re-light.
Is candle soot harmful?
No. The minuscule amount of soot produced by a candle is the natural byproduct of incomplete combustion. Candle soot is composed primarily of elemental carbon particles, and is similar to the soot given off by kitchen toasters and cooking oils. These everyday household sources of soot are not considered a health concern, and are chemically different from the soot formed by the burning of diesel fuel, coal, gasoline, etc.
What kinds of waxes are typically used in candles?
The most commonly used candle wax is paraffin. Beeswax, vegetable-based waxes, gels, and synthetic waxes are also frequently used in candles. Different blends of these waxes are popular with many manufacturers.
Are certain candle waxes better than others?
No. All types of candle waxes perform well, and will burn cleanly and safely when they are of high quality. U.S. candle manufacturers select waxes or blends of waxes based on their suitability for specific types of candles or formulation profiles, as well as their own candle-making preferences.
Are scented candles safe?
Yes. When a candle burns, the wax is drawn into the wick, where it is "consumed" by the candle flame to produce water vapor and carbon dioxide. The only difference with a scented candle is that a small amount of fragrance is released as well.

Reputable candle manufacturers use only fragrances that are approved for burning in candles. They also carefully monitor the addition of fragrance to ensure that the candle will burn cleanly and properly.
Is my candle biodegradable?
Probably. Studies have shown that beeswax, paraffin and vegetable-based waxes are biodegradable. The vast majority of candles today are made primarily from these waxes.
Are vegetable-based waxes water soluble?
No. By definition, a wax is not soluble in water.
Should I be concerned about lead wicks in candles?
The likelihood of purchasing a lead-wicked candle in the U.S. is low. Lead wicks have been officially banned in the United States since 2003, and before then they were primarily limited to inexpensive imported candles. NCA members voluntarily agreed to not use lead wicks some 30 years ago, and long supported the elimination of lead wick use.
Why do some candles have metal-core wicks?
Metal-core wicks are sometimes used in container candles and votives to keep the wick upright when the surrounding wax liquefies during burning. Today's metal-core wicks are made with either zinc or tin. Scientific studies have repeatedly shown both zinc- and tin-core wicks to be safe and non-toxic.
Is paraffin wax toxic?
No. Paraffin wax is non-toxic. In fact, paraffin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food, cosmetics, and medical applications. Food-grade paraffin is commonly used for manufacturing candles.
Are scented candles triggers for asthma or allergies?
Although millions of Americans regularly use scented candles without any negative effects, it is always possible that a particular fragrance might trigger a negative reaction in sensitive individuals. Individuals with known sensitivities to specific fragrances may want to avoid candles of those scents. In addition, consumers should remember to burn all candles, whether scented or unscented, in a well-ventilated area.
What should I know about using candles safely?
Candle Care
Theres nothing tricky to taking care of your candles. A few simple rules and a little common sense are all it takes to keep your candles looking lovely.

Always store your candles in a cool, dark and dry place. Tapers or dinner candles should be stored flat to preventing warping.
Your can remove dust and fingerprints from a candle by gently rubbing the surface with a piece of nylon or a soft cloth. The cloth can be dry or slightly dampened with water.
Wax drippings can be removed from most candleholders by running hot water over them. Some home care experts prefer removing wax by first placing the candleholder in the freezer for an hour or so. This allows the wax to shrink and easily pop out when the candleholder is removed from the freezer.
Never use a knife or a sharp object to remove wax drippings from a glass votive holder. It might scratch or weaken the glass, causing it to break upon subsequent use.
Avoid burning candles in any glass item not specifically designed for candles. Glass candleholders are specifically manufactured to withstand the temperature changes that occur when burning a candle. Everyday glassware is not designed for burning candles.
Votive holders will clean more easily afterward if you add a few drops of water to the glass before inserting the candle. Caution: Dont add more than a few drops of water and dont add water unless you intend to burn the candle immediately afterward. Over time, a candle wick could absorb the water and wont burn properly.
Avoid placing your candles where they will be directly exposed to sunlight or harsh indoor lighting, such as a spotlight. Candles may fade if they are left in bright light for an extended period of time.

Really Cool Candles or an Old Wives Tale?
Q. Ive heard that if you wrap a candle in cellophane or foil and put it in the refrigerator until its very cold, it will make the candle burn longer. Does this really work?
A. Yes and no. Its true that a cold candle will burn more slowly than one thats room temperature. But it only takes a few minutes for the heat from the flame to warm a very cold candle to room temperature.

The few extra minutes of burn time that you might get from putting a candle in the refrigerator isnt much, and probably isnt worth the effort or the refrigerator space!

History of Candles
Candles have been used for light and to illuminate man's celebrations for more than 5,000 years, yet little is known about their origin.

It is often written that the first candles were developed by the Ancient Egyptians, who used rushlights or torches made by soaking the pithy core of reeds in melted animal fat. However, the rushlights had no wick like a true candle.
Early Wicked Candles
The Egyptians were using wicked candles in 3,000 B.C., but the ancient Romans are generally credited with developing the wicked candle before that time by dipping rolled papyrus repeatedly in melted tallow or beeswax. The resulting candles were used to light their homes, to aid travelers at night, and in religious ceremonies.

Historians have found evidence that many other early civilizations developed wicked candles using waxes made from available plants and insects. Early Chinese candles are said to have been molded in paper tubes, using rolled rice paper for the wick, and wax from an indigenous insect that was combined with seeds. In China, beeswax was used for candles as early as the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.), and candle wax derived from the Coccos pella insect had been developed by the 12th century. In Japan, candles were made of wax extracted from tree nuts, while in India, candle wax was made by boiling the fruit of the cinnamon tree.

It is also known that candles played an important role in early religious ceremonies. Hanukkah, the Jewish Festival of Lights which centers on the lighting of candles, dates back to 165 B.C. There are several Biblical references to candles, and the Emperor Constantine is reported to have called for the use of candles during an Easter service in the 4th century.
Middle Ages
Most early Western cultures relied primarily on candles rendered from animal fat (tallow). ("A tallow candle, to be good, must be half Sheep's Tallow and half Cow's; that of hoggs mekes 'em gutter, give an ill smell, and a thick black smoak"
Anonymous 18th Century)
A major improvement came in the Middle Ages, when beeswax candles were introduced in Europe. Unlike animal-based tallow, beeswax burned pure and cleanly, without producing a smoky flame. It also emitted a pleasant sweet smell rather than the foul, acrid odor of tallow. Beeswax candles were widely used for church ceremonies, but because they were expensive, few individuals other than the wealthy could afford to burn them in the home.

Tallow candles were the common household candle for Europeans, and by the 13th century, candlemaking had become a guild craft in England and France. The candlemakers (chandlers) went from house to house making candles from the kitchen fats saved for that purpose, or made and sold their own candles from small candle shops.
Colonial Times
Colonial women offered America's first contribution to candlemaking, when they discovered that boiling the grayish-green berries of bayberry bushes produced a sweet-smelling wax that burned cleanly. However, extracting the wax from the bayberries was extremely tedious. As a result, the popularity of bayberry candles soon diminished.

The growth of the whaling industry in the late 18th century brought the first major change in candlemaking since the Middle Ages, when spermaceti -- a wax obtained by crystallizing sperm whale oil -- became available in quantity. Like beeswax, the spermaceti wax did not elicit a repugnant odor when burned, and produced a significantly brighter light. It also was harder than either tallow or beeswax, so it wouldn't soften or bend in the summer heat. Historians note that the first "standard candles" were made from spermaceti wax.
19th Century Advances
Most of the major developments impacting contemporary candlemaking occurred during the 19th century. In the 1820s, French chemist Michel Eugene Chevreul discovered how to extract stearic acid from animal fatty acids. This lead to the development of stearin wax, which was hard, durable and burned cleanly. Stearin candles remain popular in Europe today.

In 1834, inventor Joseph Morgan helped to further the modern-day candle industry by developing a machine that allowed for continuous production of molded candles by using a cylinder with a movable piston to eject candles as they solidified. With the introduction of mechanized production, candles became an easily affordable commodity for the masses.

Paraffin wax was introduced in the 1850s, after chemists learned how to efficiently separate the naturally-occurring waxy substance from petroleum and refine it. Odorless and bluish-white in color, paraffin was a boon to candlemaking because it burned cleanly, consistently and was more economical to produce than any other candle fuel. Its only disadvantage was a low melting point. This was soon overcome by adding the harder stearic acid, which had become widely available. With the introduction of the light bulb in 1879, candlemaking began to decline.
The 20th Century
Candles enjoyed renewed popularity during the first half of the 20th century, when the growth of U.S. oil and meatpacking industries brought an increase in the byproducts that had become the basic ingredients of candles paraffin and stearic acid.

The popularity of candles remained steady until the mid-1980s, when interest in candles as decorative items, mood-setters and gifts began to increase notably. Candles were suddenly available in a broad array of sizes, shapes and colors, and consumer interest in scented candles began to escalate.

The 1990s witnessed an unprecedented surge in the popularity of candles, and for the first time in more than a century, new types of candle waxes were being developed. In the U.S., agricultural chemists began to develop soybean wax, a softer and slower burning wax than paraffin. On the other side of the globe, efforts were underway to develop palm wax for use in candles.
Today's Candles
Candles have come a long way since their initial use. Although no longer man's major source of light, they continue to grow in popularity and use. Today, candles symbolize celebration, mark romance, soothe the senses, define ceremony, and accent home decors casting a warm and lovely glow for all to enjoy.

Wicks

All wicks consist of a bundle of fibers that are either twisted, braided or knitted together. These fibers absorb the liquefied wax and carry it to the flame by capillary action.
There are more than 100 unique wicks on the market today. The type of wax used in a candle, as well as the candle's size, shape, color and fragrance materials all impact wick choice. Selecting the correct wick is critical to making a candle that burns cleanly and properly. Reputable candle manufacturers take great care in selecting a wick of the proper size, shape and material to meet the burn requirements of a particular candle.

Types of Wicks
Most high-quality wicks are made from braided, plaited or knitted fibers to encourage a slow and consistent burn. In general, twisted wicks are of lower quality than braided or knitted wicks. They burn much faster because their loose construction allows more fuel to quickly reach the flame. However, twisted wicks are useful for certain applications, such as birthday candles.
In general, wicks can be divided into four major types:

Flat Wicks. These flat-plaited or knitted wicks, usually made from three bundles of fiber, are very consistent in their burning and curl in the flame for a self-trimming effect. They are the most commonly used wicks, and can be broadly found in taper and pillar candles.

Square Wicks. These braided or knitted wicks also curl in the flame, but are more rounded and a bit more robust than flat wicks. They are preferred for beeswax applications and can help inhibit clogging of the wick, which can occur with certain types of pigments or fragrances. Square wicks are most frequently used in taper and pillar applications.

Cored Wicks. These braided or knitted wicks use a core material to keep the wick straight or upright while burning. The wicks have a round cross section, and the use of different core materials provides a range of stiffness effects. The most common core materials for wicks are cotton, paper, zinc or tin. Cored wicks can be found in jar candles, pillars, votives and devotional lights.

Special and Oil Lamp Wicks. These wicks are specially designed to meet the burn characteristics of specific candle applications, such as oil lamps and insect-repelling candles.



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